Vaginal muscles must be able to contract to maintain continence, and to relax allowing for urination and bowel movements, and for sexual intercourse as well as for giving birth. They also support and protect the organs of the abdomen and hold the bladder in its proper place. The pelvic muscles can become stretched or weakened due to ageing and more specifically due to pregnancy. This often happens after a difficult childbirth which overstretches or tears the pelvic muscles and can also be the result of giving birth to several babies within a very short time span. Their under use can also cause pelvic floor weakness. This set of muscles, also known as the muscles of the perineum, forms the floor of the pelvic cavity and supports the pelvic organs such as the bladder, uterus and colon and intestine. These muscles act like a rubber band, they need to be tense but neither too tight to avoid pelvic floor muscle disorder nor too loose, because in both cases they will lose the right degree of elasticity and therefore their main function and could potentially create a pelvic floor dysfunction. Symptoms of hypotonic pelvic muscles: • Stress incontinence • Urge incontinence • Pelvic organ prolapse • Unsatisfactory sexual intercourse for both partners Vaginal tightening is the tightening of the pelvic musclesto achieve or maintain the right degree of elasticity of the pelvic floor muscles. Vaginal tightening can be achieved in different ways, all effective in their own way and can be complementary. Vaginoplasty is a reconstructive plastic surgery[and cosmetic procedure for the vaginal canal and its mucous membrane, and of vulvovaginal structures that might be absent or damaged because of congenital disease (e.g. vaginal hypoplasia) or because of an acquired cause (e.g. childbirth physical trauma, cancer)

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